Sales law – Sales law affects both private individuals and businesses every day. The Civil Code deals with contract law in general, including the law of sales and contracts of sale.

If both parties are satisfied with the purchase, delivery and payment and the purchased item fulfils its function, the right of purchase is unproblematic. If the purchased item does not meet the customer’s expectations or is even defective, things can quickly get complicated.

Topics in our legal advice

Special features arise in global sales contracts under UN sales law. Also important are changes introduced by the legislator in the law on sales which will apply from January next year. On this page, the lawyers of the Herfurtner law firm will provide you with all the information you need on the reform of the law on sales 2022, on UN sales law and on the topics of warranty, guarantee and defects in the purchased item.

Contact us if you have any questions about the law of sale. Our lawyers will advise you at our offices in Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg and Munich and via video conference throughout Germany.

Table of contents

  1. Sales law – Responsibilities in the event of defects
  2. UN Sales Law – Cross-Border Sales Contracts
  3. Small Businesses & Freelancers – Regulations
  4. Sales Law Reform 2022 – New Obligations for Traders
  5. Summary Sales Law
  6. Sales Law Lawyer Legal Advice

Sales law: Responsibilities for defects

It is easier for customers to judge the quality of a product if they choose it themselves and pay for it on the spot. When buying via a catalogue or the internet, slightly different rules apply. In this case, customers are completely dependent on the description and pictures of the product.

Even if the items arrive at the customer in perfect condition, the consumer may be disappointed. It is not uncommon for products to be traded afterwards. For this reason, distance contracts are subject to additional consumer protection measures.

In the area of product liability and fault for defects, many questions arise, the answers to which often require the help of a lawyer. This applies in particular to international sales contracts.

The handover of a defect-free item to the buyer is an obligation that arises from every purchase contract together with the payment of the purchase price. If a defect in the purchased item is only discovered after the purchase, the seller can be held liable for any resulting claims for damages.

It should be noted that the seller is only obliged to guarantee that the item is free of defects for a short period of time after the purchase, as damage can also occur during normal use.

Warranty versus guarantee: What is the difference in sales law?

First of all, it is important to know the difference between liability for defects, often referred to as warranty, and guarantee. Although the two terms are sometimes used as synonymous, there is a crucial difference between them.

Liability for defects, like warranty, is laid down in the Civil Code and in additional regulations applicable to individual items. The warranty is a free service provided by the manufacturer or seller, in contrast to the guarantee.

Here, the seller undertakes to guarantee the claimed quality or durability of the products in addition to the statutory claims for defects.

In order to be able to make claims under a warranty, it must be in writing and defined as precisely as possible. Warranty claims arising from an oral sales contract are difficult to enforce later.

What does § 434 BGB mean by a defect in the object of sale?

Determining whether or not an item is defective starts with looking at the express agreements between the contracting parties. If you purchase a used or damaged item at a substantial discount, you may find it difficult to enforce the seller’s warranty provisions.

Especially in these cases, it seems reasonable to explicitly refer to the acknowledged defects in the purchase agreement. It is precisely in this environment that the purchase of a used car typically raises problems.

However, anyone who buys a new item without knowing its condition must assume in their purchase decision that the item is suitable for normal use.

When assessing the quality of a new purchase, one is often guided by comparable goods of the same quality level as any customer can objectively and fairly expect. The quality of the items may also be expected by buyers on the basis of advertising statements and certain concessions made by the seller.

Thus, in addition to defects and significant external deviations, there are material defects:

  1. if the defect is not merely insignificant,
  2. if a defective instruction manual is enclosed,
  3. if the object of purchase deviates from advertising statements made by the manufacturer or seller,
  4. if an incorrect or incomplete product as well as short quantities are delivered,
  5. if defective assembly instructions are enclosed, or
  6. the agreed installation service is not properly performed.

This is what the law on sales says about complaints by the consumer

If a defect is discovered on closer inspection after a purchase in a shop or an online order, the buyer should contact the seller immediately and assert his or her rights under the seller’s defects liability policy.

If you buy something on the internet, you have the possibility to return defective items.

New items = higher burden of proof for material defects

The burden of proof for a defect in a purchased item lies with the buyer. The burden of proof for a material defect is on the buyer if he is an entrepreneur. The entrepreneur must prove that the defect was already present when the goods were handed over to him (so-called “transfer of risk”).

The time of transfer of the item to the buyer is the decisive factor. Depending on the contract, this can either be delivery to the buyer’s company or handover by the supplier.

In the case of private consumers, if they discover a defect within six months of purchase, it is assumed that the problem was already present when the product was delivered.

To reverse the burden of proof, one must refer to § 477 BGB.

It does not matter whether the goods were ordered online or bought in a local shop. The seller must prove that he handed over defect-free products and that the problem only arose through use if he denies fault for the defect.

If a defect is not discovered by the customer until six months after delivery of the products, the customer bears the responsibility for proving the problem.

Rights of the buyer in the event of a substantial defect

The buyer has a right to subsequent performance before a defect can be remedied. It is at the buyer’s discretion whether he wishes a replacement delivery free of defects or the rectification of the defective item by the seller. Initially, there is no right to exchange the goods for a refund of the purchase price.

The customer who wants a new, defect-free good will have to pay a disproportionately high price for the exchange, and the problem may not severely limit the usefulness of the good. However, the seller must explicitly – and preferably in writing – raise the customer’s objection to the so-called “relative disproportionality”.

Depending on the customer’s wishes, the seller can either repair the goods or refuse to replace them because of the disproportionate price. The seller must be given another chance to fix the problem if it persists after a first attempt at rectification.

Only if the seller refuses to make further repairs, or if the buyer considers this unreasonable, does this rule apply to the transaction. The buyer has further options if the seller refuses to provide a defect-free replacement or if the repair proves ineffective after a second attempt.

He has the reduction of the purchase price, the exchange for a comparable item, the reimbursement of the damage or the withdrawal from the contract at his disposal.

If he withdraws from the contract, he must reimburse the seller for the purchase price he paid for the items.

According to sections 281 and 323 of the Civil Code, the buyer may demand immediate cancellation of the purchase contract or compensation for damages if this is reasonable under the circumstances and after weighing the interests of both parties.

As long as the buyer stipulates in the purchase contract that his interest in the purchased item depends on the timely delivery of an item at a time chosen by him, he has the option to withdraw from the contract immediately. Disproportionality has been treated as an outlier since 1 January this year.

Absolute disproportionality exists if the repair and subsequent delivery of a damaged item is associated with disproportionately high costs for the seller. According to §§ 440 and 475 of the German Civil Code (BGB), the buyer also has the right to immediately assert the subsidiary rights of reduction, compensation and withdrawal from the contract.

Sales law: What does disproportionality mean – relatively and absolutely?

Extreme disproportionality is when the repair and subsequent delivery of a defective item leads to excessive expenses for the seller. If one of two types of subsequent performance leads to disproportionately high expenses, this is called relative disproportionality.

This is usually the case if the price difference is between 10% and 25%. Before deciding on relative disproportionality, the interests of the seller in reducing costs and those of the buyer in defective goods must be compared.

Reimbursement of costs for installation and removal of defective goods

Defective items can cause further damage to the consumer because they are intended to be installed in another item. Since the beginning of 2018, the legal situation has shifted in certain situations.

For contracts concluded before this date, the previous regulation still applies. Accordingly, private customers who purchase a consumer good are entitled to have the damaged item removed and a defect-free item installed.

If absolute disproportionality is the only means of choice for future fulfilment, the seller may not use it. The buyer’s right to reimbursement of expenses is limited only to a reasonable amount in his hands.

If the buyer is an entrepreneur, he may only demand delivery of a defect-free item. He shall be entitled to reimbursement of the costs of installation and removal.

The new legal framework applies to contracts concluded after 1 January 2018. According to this, both private individuals and companies as principals initially have the same right to the removal and installation of the defective item in a defect-free condition.

The seller is responsible for the costs. In contrast, vis-à-vis a commercial customer, he has the right to invoke complete disproportionality. Due to the high costs for the installation and removal of the defective equipment, private buyers can sometimes demand an advance payment from the seller.

Possible claims for damages

In the German Civil Code (BGB), claims for damages due to the delivery of defective products are regulated in separate paragraphs.

A claim for damages can be asserted, for example, if the seller has violated his obligations under the purchase contract negligently or intentionally or if he has failed to deliver a characteristic for which he has given a guarantee.

After a withdrawal from the contract, a claim for damages can be asserted in addition to a possible price reduction or purchase price refund.

Liability of the supply chain in case of material defects – Sales Law

As long as the defect of a new product exists in the entire supply chain – from the manufacturer to the wholesaler and retailer to the last customer or entrepreneur – the last buyer is entitled to a price reduction, withdrawal from the contract or damages.

If the last buyer is a consumer, the burden of proof is reversed in the relationship between the seller and the supplier. Contractual deviations are only permissible if the supplier compensates the last seller in the same way.

The extent to which and the form in which claims for liability for defects relate to the performance of the final seller vis-à-vis the final consumer can be determined by the final seller himself; the extent to which he is legally bound depends on the performance in question. The supplier is not entitled to reimbursement if it makes a genuine concession to the customer as a gesture of goodwill.

Repair costs or costs for the delivery of a defect-free item can be claimed back from the supplier if the ultimate seller carries out the repair, which is his duty.

As a rule, the claim for reimbursement of repair costs expires two years after delivery of the goods. Therefore, the limitation period starts as soon as the last seller has fulfilled his obligation to his customer, even if the goods were in his warehouse for a long time before the last sale.

Five years after he has delivered the goods to his buyer, the supplier’s obligation to indemnify the supplier expires in order to protect him. According to the statutory limitation periods, the last seller’s claim against his supplier for replacement or repair is also time-barred.

For these claims, too, the indemnification obligation expires five years after the sale to the ultimate seller.

Minimise the risk of defects in goods: What sellers can do

  • Analyse contracts and general terms and conditions and amend them if necessary
  • Check the vendor’s promotional material and claims.
  • Check the instructions for use and assembly
  • Examine the products for any defects before buying them.
  • Carefully examine possible claims for damages.
  • Prefer out-of-court settlement of disputes

Returning and exchanging goods – possibilities

Exchanges and returns are not only possible for defective items. Customers can also exchange or return items if they are dissatisfied with them or they are the wrong size. However, shoppers who purchase defect-free items from retailers cannot exchange or return them.

Exceptions for consumers exist for doorstep sales, coffee runs, online purchases, orders placed by email, phone, fax or other electronic means of communication, credit transactions and the voluntary granting of a right to exchange or return if not satisfied.

Customers who exercise their right of withdrawal and return may do so and receive a refund of the purchase price. The seller, on the other hand, has the right to charge for used items or for transport.

It is unlawful to exclude the right of exchange from liability for defects. Also, limited-time offers and clearance sales cannot be returned because the customer does not like them, but because they do not fall under the company’s liability for defects. Consumers’ 14-day right of withdrawal does not apply to online purchases.

When returning defective products, the customer has the option of receiving new goods or having the old ones repaired. If the customer wants to have the goods repaired and this does not succeed after two attempts, the trader must refund the purchase price and take the goods back from the customer.

The unused part of the purchase price is refunded to the customer in cash. Even if he is obliged to accept a voucher according to the general terms and conditions, he has the possibility to reject it. In the case of a return due to dissatisfaction, the scenario is different.

Here, the trader trades the products freely and can limit the exchange to other goods or a voucher.

UN Sales Law – cross-border sales contracts

Cross-border sales transactions are subject to certain legal regulations on the law of sales. In this case, UN sales law takes the place of German sales contract law. Due to the complexity of international commercial law, it is advisable to speak to a lawyer who specialises in international sales law.

The parties to a cross-border sales contract choose which law should apply to the transaction. Otherwise, private international law (IPR) would apply.

In most export and import cases, German law is superseded by the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods.

Global purchasing standards

The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods aims to simplify the processes of global trade by creating a single set of purchasing rules for buyers around the world. The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods has been signed by all major industrialised countries.

All export transactions of goods are subject to the UN Sales Convention. Purchases for personal use, such as a car, are not covered. The decisive factor is that the purchases are made across national borders. Therefore, the UN Sales Convention does not apply to transactions that are only made within the country.

Moreover, communication with at least one of the contracting states of the UN Sales Convention is required.

It is only the place of the transaction that matters, not, for example, the nationality. This means that the UN Sales Convention applies if both the buyer’s country and the seller’s country are contracting states of the UN Sales Convention. The UN Sales Convention is not international law, it is German law.

If the parties have agreed on German law, it shall apply. The parties have the option to exclude the application of the UN Sales Convention. Therefore, the contracting parties should check whether or not the provisions and legal regulations of the UN Sales Convention differ substantially from those of the German Civil Code and the German Commercial Code.

Only certain sections of the UN Sales Convention can be omitted.

What is the UN Sales Convention all about?

It is a standardised piece of international law, the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, which has been ratified by over 90 states. The power to refuse to adopt certain legal concepts into national law lies with individual states.

But the UN Sales Convention provides a workable framework for global trade.

The UN Sales Convention contains numerous flexibility provisions that allow contracting parties to enter into unique commercial arrangements. The UN Sales Convention can be completely excluded from a contract by the contracting parties.

For the purposes of the UN Sales Convention, a purchase or sale of goods for money is considered a contract for the supply of goods and services where a service is the primary consideration is not covered by this provision.

Furthermore, only countries that have ratified the UN Sales Convention are bound by it. The UN Sales Convention regulates only the most basic aspects of sales contracts. These include: the obligations of buyer and seller, warranty rights and the drafting of contracts.

Exceptional issues such as the legality of general terms and conditions, the retention of title or the avoidance of the contract are governed by national law.

Special UN Provisions for International Sales Contracts

If the contracting parties agree that UN sales law is to apply to their contract, the following deviations from German law must be observed: Offers must be binding and fix the purchase price in advance or at least make it conceivable. The offer does not have to be accepted if it is rejected.

If the contracting party does not object, even if the acceptance differs somewhat from the offer, the contract is concluded. Only the recipients of the offer can accept it.

Silence in response to a business confirmation letter does not constitute acceptance.

If the contract contains general terms and conditions, these must be communicated to the other party in his or her native language. Upon receipt of the products, the buyer must inspect them thoroughly for any defects. Defects must be reported within a reasonable time.

Conclusion of contract – what you should bear in mind

Both the German Civil Code (BGB) and the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) provide that a contract is concluded by the two factors of offer and acceptance.

To be considered an offer, you must make a proposal that is specific enough, i.e. you must state exactly what you are offering and how much you are offering.

In order to be bound by his offer, the offeror must state this explicitly. Only when the recipient accepts an offer does it become valid. If an offer is made to a third party, the third party must accept it for it to become legally binding.

Be careful when making offers to commercial agents, because the recipient of the offer is not the commercial agent.

Crucially: Under the UN Sales Convention, an offer may be freely revoked. To do so, the revocation must reach the recipient before his or her declaration of acceptance. This is not possible under the German Civil Code. If the acceptance does not correspond to the content of the offer, a differentiation must be made.

Any change to an offer is treated by the BGB as a new offer. Provided the deviation is not substantial, the offer becomes effective under the UN Sales Convention with the changed content. If the amendment is in favour of the offeror, the contract is concluded upon acceptance and the significance of the amendment is irrelevant.

In addition, the UN Sales Convention requires that the General Terms and Conditions (GTC) be disclosed to the contracting party, which differs from the BGB/HGB. Under the BGB/HGB, it is sufficient to refer to the GTC without disclosing their wording to the other party.

Consequently, the GTC must be attached to the offer in full in the language of the contract.

Agreement between buyer and seller on their responsibilities

The seller must hand over all relevant papers and transfer ownership. Under the UN Sales Convention, the place of delivery is often the place where the seller hands over the goods to the carrier. If the parties have agreed that the products will be delivered to the buyer, this rule does not apply.

It is much more important for the buyer to check and report problems.

While the German Commercial Code does not require an immediate complaint in the case of serious quantity defects and wrong deliveries where the buyer’s consent to the goods is excluded, under the UN Sales Convention anything that is not in conformity with the contract must be reported immediately.

When it comes to short inspection periods, three to four days are common according to case law.

The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods gives the buyer a short period within which to claim that the goods or services are not in conformity with the contract. German case law provides for a period of one week from the time the buyer becomes aware of the lack of conformity.

Only if he notifies the seller in time is the buyer protected from further claims.

What exactly is covered by the warranty?

According to the laws of the German Civil Code, the customer has the right to return the goods and claim damages or a reduction of the purchase price if they are defective or of inferior quality. Only if there is a serious breach of contract does the buyer have rights under the UN Sales Convention arising from defective delivery.

If the seller is willing to make further deliveries without imposing an undue hardship on the buyer, even substantial defects do not constitute a material breach of contract.

Additional time limits

Warranty claims may become time-barred six months after delivery due to the reversal of the burden of proof under § 477 BGB (for movable goods). Warranty claims are subject to a limitation period of two years under the UN Sales Convention. In international trade, the parties may agree otherwise.

Incoterms – what are they?

Incoterms are international trade clauses that regulate the delivery of products from the seller to the buyer on a national and international level. These agreements include, for example, delivery conditions, packaging obligations, insurance, assumption of costs and liability, and transport documents.

Small business owners and freelancers

Due to their exceptional quality and unique design, handmade clothing, accessories and home accessories are becoming increasingly popular. More and more freelancers and small entrepreneurs are selling goods that they have made themselves.

Many questions arise when buying from a supplier who often produces unique items or small series.

Selling handmade goods – legal concerns

People who are self-employed or run a small business selling handmade goods are primarily interested in the creative process involved in designing and making their own products. However, the legal requirements for selling and manufacturing are often overlooked.

Self-produced food must be sold under strict hygiene guidelines. This also applies to the production of cosmetics, such as handmade soap, perfumes or creams.

Toys, home textiles and clothing also fall within the scope of the Product Safety Act.

It is possible for manufacturers and sellers to be held responsible if their products have negative effects on health or cause harm to the body.

To name just a few of the obligations that manufacturers of DIY products have to deal with: Product safety, labelling, compliance with conformity regulations, product liability, application guidelines, dealer inspections, warranty obligations, competition regulations, consumer protection and distance selling law.

Product safety obligations and regulations

These obligations are accompanied by many legal rules and regulations that everyone who sells their own products should know. The product safety regulations alone place a huge burden on manufacturers and sellers alike.

Allergies can be triggered by the fabric or wool of a hand-knitted jumper. As a result, buyers can make several claims for damages. In this case, numerous labelling regulations must also be complied with.

Textiles, for example, must be labelled with information about the composition of the material.

The craftsman is therefore also responsible for the composition and proper labelling of materials purchased from other suppliers. The manufacture and sale of toys is subject to extremely strict safety and labelling regulations.

Toys must be CE marked and in some cases carry warnings.

The Toy Ordinance even prescribes the language of the warnings, which must begin with “Caution”.

Anyone who wants to sell their self-made items should find out about their obligations before offering them for sale for the first time and ensure that they are met.

Sales Law Reform 2022: New obligations for traders due to legal changes

A stricter burden of proof and an updating obligation are associated with the new warranty periods. From 1 January 2022, a whole range of new requirements will apply to traders selling items to consumers. Sellers of items with digital functions, such as smartwatches, will have an obligation to update.

A tightening of warranty law is also part of the discussion. Here is an overview of the changes in sales law.

Tablets, e-bikes, cars, smartwatches, navigation systems, hoover robots and washing machines all contain digital components and must be updated by the seller.

The obligation to update exists to ensure that the technology will continue to function as the digital environment evolves, such as cloud architecture.

In addition, the smart devices must be secure to prevent unwanted third parties from accessing data or functions.

The seller has a duty to provide any updates required to keep the item in compliance with the contract. He also has a duty to notify the customer of the impending update.

However, the Entrepreneur is not obliged to produce better versions of the Digital Parts beyond function-maintaining upgrades.

Obligation to update without time limit?

It is unclear how long the obligation to update will last. It all depends on what the client intends to do. The obligation to update may last longer or shorter depending on the circumstances of the individual case.

Advertising claims, the materials used in the manufacture of the purchased item, the price and research results on the normal duration of use and application can serve as indicators for estimating the time frame (“life cycle”).

Since dealers are not able to stock updates and upgrades in a timely manner and are dependent on the cooperation of manufacturers, they will face difficulties as a result of the new update obligation.

According to the Association of German Chambers of Industry and Commerce, the terms of the contract should transfer the responsibility for updating to the dealer’s supplier or manufacturer. As a result, dealers will have to respond better to complaints from customers who feel left out.

The burden of proof in sales law is increased

B2C sellers must now prove that the purchased item is free of defects for a period of twelve months after delivery, instead of only six months as before. This significantly reduces the burden of proof for sellers in B2C transactions.

If the seller can prove, as before, that the defect was caused by improper handling or normal wear and tear, the legal presumption can be rebutted again.

However, such proof is both expensive and time-consuming to provide.

By extending the presumption period from six months to one year, traders will be confronted with more lawsuits and thus higher costs.

Caution with disagreements about product quality

Until now, when selling B-goods, demonstration units, exhibition items or second-hand goods, the negative quality of a product, such as signs of wear or use, could be agreed upon via the product description or the signage of the products.

Only if the customer was “specifically” informed of this before submitting his contractual declaration would it be permissible in future to make negative quality agreements deviating from the objective criteria.

Deviations also require an explicit and separate agreement. Thus, the deviation is neither controllable by the contract nor by the provisions of the agreement itself. A box ticked in advance, which the customer can deactivate, is not sufficient in online commerce.

Sales Law Reform 2022 – Warranty Period Subject to New Rules

Complaints about defects in objects of purchase must be made within two years of receipt of the goods. However, two inhibitions, the so-called forfeiture inhibitions, are new: For defects that occur within the normal warranty period, a four-month limitation period applies.

So, for example, if a problem with a printer purchased is discovered after the 23rd month, the customer has until the 27th. The problem with this is that the seller cannot know when the defect first occurred.

However, if a claimed defect is remedied by future performance, the limitation period is suspended and the claim can continue. Due to the two-month limitation period, the consumer in this case has two months from the date of delivery to bring an action for the alleged defect.

The aim of this clause is to give the buyer the opportunity to check whether the subsequent performance has remedied the alleged defect after he has received the item back. The limitation period does not expire under this clause as long as the purchased item is still with the seller for subsequent performance.

Getting money back – simple methods for customers

Warranty law provides that a seller must be able to remedy a material defect. Consequently, the buyer’s right to subsequent performance is limited. In other words, he has the right to demand that the defective item be repaired or that he receive a new, defect-free item.

Withdrawal, reduction and damages, on the other hand, are only conceivable if the buyer has set the seller a deadline for subsequent performance and this deadline has passed fruitlessly.

While this law applies to commercial transactions, consumer transactions are exempt from the obligation to set a deadline. It is sufficient if something happens after the expiry of a reasonable period. The customer has the right to withdraw from the contract if the company does not fulfil its obligations within the time limit.

The tightening of warranty law has far-reaching consequences, including the possibility that a car dealer who spends an unreasonable amount of time responding to customer complaints about a controllable material defect will have to pay back the purchase price in addition to the cost of obtaining a new vehicle.

Use time until the end of the year for preparation

The EU Sales Directive must be transposed into German law to bring about these changes, some of which are far-reaching.

Many new legal requirements must now be put into practice by retail businesses. This applies to all innovations, not only those mentioned above. Additional legal criteria must also be observed for warranties, the sale of second-hand goods, entrepreneurial recourse and in numerous other areas.

Consequently, company rules must be re-evaluated, salespersons trained and complaints management as well as contractual agreements with manufacturers and/or suppliers amended with regard to the new rules.

Before the new distribution law comes into force on 1 January 2022, all necessary precautions should be taken to avoid legal consequences.

Sales Law Summary

It is difficult to keep track of all the provisions of the law on sales because it is very complicated. Private consumers often benefit from special consumer protection laws, while B2B companies are considered less worthy of protection.

The legal provisions on the seller’s liability for material defects are particularly important for commercial sellers, as they impose additional obligations. Consumer goods are an essential part of this framework, as sellers must now verify that the items sold to the customer were free from defects at the time of handover.

Issues relating to cross-border international sales contracts fall under the jurisdiction of a different area of law.

In case of doubt, you should seek advice from a lawyer specialising in sales law.

The comprehensive law on sales contracts and warranties affects small entrepreneurs and freelancers as well as large companies. You must therefore inform yourself comprehensively about your obligations.

Law of sale lawyer advises on reform 2022

In everyday life, the contract of sale is probably the most frequently accepted legal transaction. In the vast majority of concluded sales contracts, there are very few problems.

Would you like legal advice on the subject of sales law, sales law reform 2022 or UN sales law. Contact our lawyers – our Herfurtner law firm will support you comprehensively and nationwide.